Taj-Al Mulk North Dome, Jameh mosque, Isfahan, built1088, along with detail showing the Route of Venus from James Fergusons, Astronomy Explains About Sir Isaac Newtons Principles, 1799 ed., plate III, opp. 67. Geometry The Language of Symmetry in Islamic Art – Throughout the ages mystics & theologians have used geometry as a contemplative focus, as it enables the viewer a vision of the underyling order of both the cosmos and the natural world. The cyclical motion of celestial bodies, which Plato called that the music of that the spheres, finds its Earthly reflection in that the organic symmetries found through nature and more surprisingly in the world of blossoms, the proportions of the are regulated by simple geometric laws.
The source of the word cosmos is adornment as well as the adornment of sacred buildings using both flower and geometric patterns makes the viewer very sensitive to the subtle harmonies joining the organic world around us with the cosmos. In Islam artwork the geometric figure of the circle reflects the primordial sign of unity and the greatest origin of diversity in production. The natural division of the circle to regular divisions is the ritual beginning point for many conventional Islam designs, as exhibited in the drawings below. The pattern over from Yazd from Iran is derived from six ordinary divisions of the circle.
From this regular grid of triangles is established, along with which the design is elaborated. Notice the way the complex interweaving of pattern interweaves with the fundamental design which appears in white outline from the photo above. A family of geometric tiles, derived from the octagram form a jigsaw puzzle, which through different combinations can generate a number of spectacular designs. These are typical of that the ceramic cut tile pieces utilized in mosaics thoughout Morocco, where they’re known as zillij and Andalucia, where they’re known as alicatado, from the early middle ages period onwards. These shapes are still cut by hand from present day Morocco.
In the Alhambra, Spain, geometric layout is perfectly integrated with biomorphic design and calligraphy. Those are the 3 unique, but complementary, disciplines that comprise Islam art. They form a 3 fold hierarchy wherein geometry is seen as foundational. This is frequently signified by its use on the floor or lower portions of walls, as shown in that the image over. The decorative elements deployed use a wide range of symmetries the have now been classified as belonging to unique mathematical groups, but that the subtlety and beauty of that the projects is unparallelled in modern mathematical thinking. Islam designers used the full range of Archimedes tiles first discovered by the The Greeks, but added to expanded upon these with remarkable visual and spatial ingenuity.